Friday, August 10, 2018

NeuroML2/LEMS is moving into Neural Mass Models and whole brain networks

In the last months, as part of the Google Summer of Code 2018, I have been working on a project that aimed to implement neuronal models which represent averaged population activity on NeuroML2/LEMS. The project was supported by the INCF organisation and my mentor, Padraig Gleeson, and I had 3 months to shape and bring to life all the ideas that we had in our heads. This blog post summarises the core motivation of the project, the technical challenges, what I have done, and future steps.

Background
NeuroML version 2 and LEMS were introduced in order to standardise the description of neuroscience computational models and facilitate the shareability of results among different research groups1. However, so far, NeuroML2/LEMS have focused on modelling spiking neurons and how information is exchanged between them in networks. With the introduction of neural mass models, NeuroML2/LEMS can be extended to study interactions between large-scale systems such as cortical regions and indeed whole brain dynamics. To achieve this, my project consisted of implementing the basic structures needed in NeuroML2/LEMS to simulate Neural Mass Models and compare the results with previously published papers.

What I did
During the project I focused on the implementation of three previously described Neural Mass Models into NeuroML2/LEMS:

1. del Molino et al., 20172: This study analyses the dynamics and interaction between excitatory neurons and three types of interneurons (parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SST) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expressing).  It first looks at the interactions between single units representing each population and then it scales up to analyse the interaction between a network with multiple interacting units in each population. A detailed description of the model that I have implemented in NeuroML and an illustrative Jupyter notebook that reproduces the main findings from the paper can be found at this git repository.




Overview of the del Molino et al., 2017 model implemented in NeuroML2/LEMS. The scheme on the left illustrate how the different populations are connected and the entry point of the top-down modulatory input. Once the dynamics of the interaction between single units have been analysed, we scale up to look at the interaction of a network of multiple interacting units in each population. The network population is illustrated on the right

2. Wilson and Cowan, 19723: This classic model describes the interaction between populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons.  In this project, I have implemented a NEURON interpretation of the Wilson and Cowan model into NeuroML and compared the dynamics of the model by looking at the dynamics of the generated results. The repository with the Wilson and Cowan simulations can be found here.




Illustration of the population modelled with Wilson and Cowan simulation and how the dynamics over time change with (Drive) and without (No Drive) an additional external input current  

3. Mejias et al., 20164: analyses the dynamics across multiple scales of the primate cortex (intralaminar, interlaminar, interareal and whole cortex). This git repo so far implements the intralaminar and interlaminar simulations of the cortex in Python and provides the methods needed for analysing the results from the NeuroML2/LEMS simulation.  It also contains a first model of the interlaminar simulation using NeuroML2/LEMS that will be further extended to simulate the firing rate at interlaminar, interareal and whole cortex level.



Illustration of the Mejias et al., 2016 models implemented so far: While at the intralaminar level analyses the dynamics of the excitatory (in red) and inhibitory population (in blue) for each layer are considered independent, in the interlaminar the interaction between supra- (Layer 2/3) and infragranular (Layer 5/6) layers are taken into account

The technical challenges 

In order to be able to simulate Neural Mass Models, we had to extend previously defined  NeuroML2 components used to simulate spiking models. To this end we defined two new core components:

  • baseRateUnit: which extends the baseCellMembPot but instead of exposing the membrane potential it exposes the population’s firing rate.
  • rateSynapse: In the spiking models a change in current is only triggered if the cell membrane exceeds a specific threshold. In a rate base model, however, there is a continuous transmission of currents between the populations. Therefore we extended the baseSynapse component so that it allows the continuous transmission of currents between the population using continuous connections.

The detailed implementation of the two components can be found here.

The future
The projects I have worked on during these 3 months were a proof of concept to explore how NeuroML2/LEMS can be extended to simulate Neural Mass Models. They provided valuable insight into the necessary components to extend NeuroML2/LEMS to large-scale dynamics and a proof of concept that the generated signal is comparable to those generated with other tools.

These are, however, just the first steps into a very interesting direction: just imagine how incredible it would be to extend this data to a whole brain simulation. One possible candidate would be to use mouse data for the simulation (e.g. from the Allen Institute mouse connectivity datasets). So stay tuned for future updates!

The experience
Working on this project was not only a great way of getting to learn the intricacies of NeuroML, get a better understanding of Neural Mass Models but it was also a great opportunity to get my hands dirty with the code. It was also very satisfying to produce in a short time something from the beginning to the end. In addition to all these, it was also my first contact with the open source community. Thank you very much Padraig, for the help and the guidance during these months!

References
1 Cannon, R. C., Gleeson, P., Crook, S., Ganapathy, G., Marin, B., Piasini, E., & Silver, R. A. (2014). LEMS: a language for expressing complex biological models in concise and hierarchical form and its use in underpinning NeuroML 2. Frontiers in neuroinformatics, 8, 79 https://doi.org/10.3389/fninf.2014.00079 .
2 Garcia Del Molino, Luis Carlos, Guangyu Robert Yang, Jorge F. Mejias, and Xiao-Jing Wang. 2017a. “Paradoxical Response Reversal of Top-down Modulation in Cortical Circuits with Three Interneuron Types.” eLife 6 (December). https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.29742 .
3 Wilson, H. R., & Cowan, J. D. (1972). Excitatory and inhibitory interactions in localized populations of model neurons. Biophysical journal, 12(1), 1-24 http://dx.doi.org/0.1016/S0006-3495(72)86068-5 .
4 Mejias, Jorge F., John D. Murray, Henry Kennedy, and Xiao-Jing Wang. 2016a. “Feedforward and Feedback Frequency-Dependent Interactions in a Large-Scale Laminar Network of the Primate Cortex.” https://doi.org/10.1101/065854 .  




Thursday, April 20, 2017

PyNN 0.9.0 released

I'm happy to announce the release of PyNN 0.9.0!

This version of PyNN adopts the new, simplified Neo object model, first released as Neo 0.5.0, for the data structures returned by Population.get_data(). For more information on the new Neo API, see the Neo release notes

The main difference for a PyNN user is that the AnalogSignalArray class has been renamed to AnalogSignal, and similarly the Segment.analogsignalarrays attribute is now called Segment.analogsignals

What is PyNN?

PyNN (pronounced 'pine') is a simulator-independent language for building neuronal network models.

In other words, you can write the code for a model once, using the PyNN API and the Python programming language, and then run it without modification on any simulator that PyNN supports (currently NEURON, NEST and Brian as well as the SpiNNaker and BrainScaleS neuromorphic hardware systems).

Even if you don't wish to run simulations on multiple simulators, you may benefit from writing your simulation code using PyNN's powerful, high-level interface. In this case, you can use any neuron or synapse model supported by your simulator, and are not restricted to the standard models.

The code is released under the CeCILL licence (GPL-compatible).

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

Neo 0.5.0-alpha1 released

We are pleased to announce the first alpha release of Neo 0.5.0.

Neo is a Python library which provides data structures for working with electrophysiology data, whether from biological experiments or from simulations, together with a large library of input-output modules to allow reading from a large number of different electrophysiology file formats (and to write to a somewhat smaller subset, including HDF5 and Matlab).

For Neo 0.5, we have taken the opportunity to simplify the Neo object model. Although this will require an initial time investment for anyone who has written code with an earlier version of Neo, the benefits will be greater simplicity, both in your own code and within the Neo code base, which should allow us to move more quickly in fixing bugs, improving performance and adding new features. For details of what has changed and what has been added, see the Release notes.

If you are already using Neo for your data analysis, we encourage you to give the alpha release a try. The more feedback we get about the alpha release, the quicker we can find and fix bugs. If you do find a bug, please create a ticket. If you have questions, please post them on the mailing list or in the comments below.

Documentation:
http://neo.readthedocs.io/en/neo-0.5.0alpha1/
Licence:
Modified BSD
Source code:
https://github.com/NeuralEnsemble/python-neo

Thursday, May 26, 2016

Updated Docker images for biological neuronal network simulations with Python

The NeuralEnsemble Docker images for biological neuronal network simulations with Python have been updated to contain NEST 2.10, NEURON 7.4, Brian 2.0rc1 and PyNN 0.8.1.

In addition, the default images (which are based on NeuroDebian Jessie) now use Python 3.4. Images with Python 2.7 and Brian 1.4 are also available (using the "py2" tag). There is also an image with older versions (NEST 2.2 and PyNN 0.7.5).

The images are intended as a quick way to get simulation projects up-and-running on Linux, OS X and Windows. They can be used for teaching or as the basis for reproducible research projects that can easily be shared with others.

The images are available on Docker Hub.

To quickly get started, once you have Docker installed, run

docker pull neuralensemble/simulation
docker run -i -t neuralensemble/simulation /bin/bash

For Python 2.7:

docker pull neuralensemble/simulation:py2

For older versions:

docker pull neuralensemble/pynn07

For ssh/X11 support, use the "simulationx" image instead of "simulation". Full instructions are available here.

If anyone would like to help out, or suggest other tools that should be installed, please contact me, or open a ticket on Github.

PyNN 0.8.1 released

Having forgotten to blog about the release of PyNN 0.8.0, here is an announcement of PyNN 0.8.1!

For all the API changes between PyNN 0.7 and 0.8 see the release notes for 0.8.0. The main change with PyNN 0.8.1 is support for NEST 2.10.

PyNN 0.8.1 can be installed with pip from PyPI.


What is PyNN?


PyNN (pronounced 'pine' ) is a simulator-independent language for building neuronal network models.

In other words, you can write the code for a model once, using the PyNN API and the Python programming language, and then run it without modification on any simulator that PyNN supports (currently NEURON, NEST and Brian as well as the SpiNNaker and BrainScaleS neuromorphic hardware systems).

Even if you don't wish to run simulations on multiple simulators, you may benefit from writing your simulation code using PyNN's powerful, high-level interface. In this case, you can use any neuron or synapse model supported by your simulator, and are not restricted to the standard models.

The code is released under the CeCILL licence (GPL-compatible).

Friday, April 1, 2016

EU Human Brain Project Releases Platforms to the Public

"Geneva, 30 March 2016 — The Human Brain Project (HBP) is pleased to announce the release of initial versions of its six Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Platforms to users outside the Project. These Platforms are designed to help the scientific community to accelerate progress in neuroscience, medicine, and computing.

[...]


The six HBP Platforms are:
  • The Neuroinformatics Platform: registration, search, analysis of neuroscience data.
  • The Brain Simulation Platform: reconstruction and simulation of the brain.
  • The High Performance Computing Platform: computing and storage facilities to run complex simulations and analyse large data sets.
  • The Medical Informatics Platform: searching of real patient data to understand similarities and differences among brain diseases.
  • The Neuromorphic Computing Platform: access to computer systems that emulate brain microcircuits and apply principles similar to the way the brain learns.
  • The Neurorobotics Platform: testing of virtual models of the brain by connecting them to simulated robot bodies and environments.
All the Platforms can be accessed via the HBP Collaboratory, a web portal where users can also find guidelines, tutorials and information on training seminars. Please note that users will need to register to access the Platforms and that some of the Platform resources have capacity limits."

   ... More in the official press release here.

 The HBP held an online release event on 30 March:


Prof. Felix Schürmann (EPFL-BBP, Geneva), Dr. Eilif Muller (EPFL-BBP, Geneva), and Prof. Idan Segev (HUJI, Jerusalem) present an overview of the mission, tools, capabilities and science of the EU Human Brain Project (HBP) Brain Simulation Platform:


A publicly accessible forum for the BSP is here:
https://forum.humanbrainproject.eu/c/bsp
and for community models
https://forum.humanbrainproject.eu/c/community-models
and for community models of hippocampus in particular
https://forum.humanbrainproject.eu/c/community-models/hippocampus

Monday, March 7, 2016

Released - BluePyOpt 0.2 : Leveraging OSS and the cloud to optimise models to neuroscience data

BluePyOpt


The BlueBrain Python Optimisation Library (BluePyOpt) is an extensible framework for data-driven model parameter optimisation that wraps and standardises several existing open-source tools. It simplifies the task of creating and sharing these optimisations, and the associated techniques and knowledge. This is achieved by abstracting the optimisation and evaluation tasks into various reusable and flexible discrete elements according to established best-practices. Further, BluePyOpt provides methods for setting up both small- and large-scale optimisations on a variety of platforms, ranging from laptops to Linux clusters and cloud-based compute infrastructures.

The code is available here:
https://github.com/BlueBrain/BluePyOpt
A preprint to the paper is available here:
http://arxiv.org/abs/1603.00500